Assignment directions tell you that in between the cover page and the table of contents, an abstract is also required. If you are unfamiliar with this concept, then you want to understand what an abstract is and what it is not, and know how to write one and include it in your final paper.
Top of Page Describe the organism s used in the study. This includes giving the 1 source supplier or where and how the orgranisms were collected2 typical size weight, length, etc3 how they were handled, fed, and housed before the experiment, 4 how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment.
In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used. For some studies, age may be an important factor.
For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants? Describe the site where your field study was conducted. The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. Include the date s of the study e.
Location data must be as precise as possible: When possible, give the actual latitude and longitude position of the site: It is often a good idea to include a map labeled as a Figure showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area. Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area.
For laboratory studies you need not report the date and location of the study UNLESS it is necessary information for someone to have who might wish to repeat your work or use the same facility. Most often it is not. If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility.
Top of Page Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls, treatments, variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured, what form the data take, etc. Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number e.
When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment. A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses.
Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings.
Foremost in your description should be the "quantitative" aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc.
When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures e.
You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category e. It is appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source vendor and catalog number for reagents used, e.
Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method.Overview. The instructions provided here are for a research article or a research report (generally these guidelines follow the formatting guidelines of the American Psychological Association documented in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 4th Edition).Please consult the specific guidelines that are required by the publisher for the type of document you are producing.
After the abstract, include a short list of keywords to enable others to locate your paper more effectively. Abstract Template (APA) A free, comprehensive, peer-reviewed, award-winning Open Text for students and faculty in college-level courses that require writing and research.
An abstract summarizes, usually in one paragraph of words or less, the major aspects of the entire paper in a prescribed sequence that includes: 1) the overall purpose of the study and the research problem(s) you investigated; 2) the basic design of the study; 3) major findings or trends found as a result of your analysis; and, 4) a brief summary of your interpretations and conclusions.
Sep 24, · In APA, the abstract is the section that follows the title page. It is the summary of the paper's content including the methods, research findings, and conclusions. It .
APA format is the official style of the American Psychological Association and is use in psychology writing as well as other social sciences. These style guidelines specify different aspects of a document's presentation and layout, including how pages are structured, the organization of references, and how citations are made.
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