Finally, there is jihad of the sword. Jihad of the sword is most relevant for the counterterrorism community today because it rests at the foundation of the global jihadist ideology. The concept of jihad of the sword has been repeatedly reinterpreted and redefined since the days of the Prophet Muhammad. During this extensive time period, jihad by the sword has been used by protagonists to rally co-religionists in the pursuit of a political objective.
From the Christian crusades of the Middle Ages to the fatwa on Salman Rushdie at the close of the millennium, the predominately Christian societies of Western Europe and North America have been suspicious and fearful of Muslims. Conversely, Muslim adherents of Islam find much in Western social values and practices antithetical to their tradition.
The arena of conflict between these communities is changing rapidly, primarily due to the technological innovations of the information age and the confrontation of cultures. No longer are geographical boundaries adequate to separate these cultures. At the same time, Muslims of the diaspora are creating religious and cultural enclaves using Arabsat and the Internet, as well as traditional channels.
Yet, recent Islamic migrants to Western nations face the dilemma of finding their authentic voice in popular Western culture, balanced against their fears of cultural assimilation and loss of identity.
They seek to know how is it possible to move toward the center of Western culture without compromising deeply-held religious beliefs and traditions. More Navigating the cultural conflicts between Islam and the West is not a trivial challenge given sharply contrasting worldviews; the two domains of knowledge are poorly matched.
Islam offers a totalized worldview encompassing all spheres of community intercourse: The West isolates the spheres of knowledge and action and enshrines the individual. The clash that arises from conflicting worldviews leaves emotional and psychological scars.
The Islamic world consists of diverse ethnic, cultural, and geographic populations, and faces the challenge of uniting diverse national cultures.
There are thirty countries, mainly in Asia and Africa, with a total population of about million, in which Muslims have an overall majority; many more countries have sizable Muslim minorities. The total Muslim world population is close to 1.
The Muslim population has grown rapidly in Europe and North America in the past two decades. There is a growing Islamic presence in the United States, although it is concentrated primarily in a dozen major urban centers El-Badry, At the close of the twentieth century, there were approximately thirty-five million Muslims in Europe and North America, with about 1, mosques and Islamic centers in the United States.
Adaptation of Islamic peoples into a secular society depends on their resourcefulness. They point to Black African slaves who held Islamic beliefs until as late as the early part of the twentieth century.
Earlier, migration of the Melungeons came to North America prior to the s. The first waves of Arabic immigrants from Lebanon and Syria occurred in the s and s Haddad, Even though Muslims embrace different religious traditions i. Traditional Muslims affirm, as did Pakistani anthropologist Akbar S.
Arabs exchanged their oil in the open world marketplace for a foreign and antagonistic Western culture. Muslim adherents disagree about the power of Western values to secularize Islamic culture.
Traditionalists argue either for severance of Islamic nations with Western institutions, or for globalization of Islamic values. The history of Muslim-Christian dialogue includes periods of great hostility and open war, as well as times of uneasy toleration, peaceful coexistence, and even cooperation toward shared goals Kimball, A growing consensus, however, suggests Islamic- Western tensions may be growing with the expanding information society Yamani, We should have no illusions about the matter: Some Islamic leaders do promote the goal of internationalization and globalization.
He argued that Muslims should not fear globalization and should seek to benefit from all the means of progress in science, economics and wealth.The phrase Arts of the Islamic World also acknowledges that not all of the work produced in the Islamic world was for Muslims or created by Muslims.
for populations in their resistance of unjust, corrupt or ineffective governments and provides an identity for minority groups that otherwise don’t fit in.
The danger, understanding and self-definition. Religious ideals pro-vide a haven of sorts for women through its glorifica-tion of . understanding of how religion is intertwined with various and expanded the scope of Islamic resistance internationally.
In Jerusalem, religiously-motivated settlers, funded largely by American The fusion of religious and political imagery: some of Beirut’s war-ravaged buildings have become symbolic. focuses on the work of the charities af liated with the Islamic resistance movement in Lebanon.
Using a Gramscian framework, I analyze how these employed religious imagery as a metaphor for empowerment. As Ajami ( ) notes, he reworked the tragic story of the Battle of Karbala to The notion of resistance is critical to any. Even though tensions are not entirely resolved, the promise of mutual understanding is making inroads in the uncertain relations between Islam as one of the world’s great religious traditions, and the predominantly Christian West.
The post-9/11 debate on the meaning of “jihad” has often floundered at a superficial understanding of the term. Jihad is often simply referred to as either “striving” or “holy war.” Jihad, however, must be understood to consist of four varieties of human activity agreed upon by Islamic.