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Study guide For a printer-friendly PDF version of this guide, click here This brief study guide aims to help you to understand why you should include references to the information sources that you use to underpin your writing. It explains the main principles of accurately referencing such sources in your work.
Effective note makingAvoiding plagiarism.
When you are writing an essay, report, dissertation or any other form of academic writing, your own thoughts and ideas inevitably build on those of other writers, researchers or teachers.
It is essential that you acknowledge your debt to the sources of data, research and ideas on which you have drawn by including references to, and full details of, these sources in your work. Referencing your work allows the reader: Before you write Whenever you read or research material for your writing, make sure that you include in your notes, or on any photocopied material, the full publication details of each relevant text that you read.
These details should include: For particularly important points, or for parts of texts that you might wish Referencing for history essays quote word for word, also include in your notes the specific page reference.
When to use references Your source should be acknowledged every time the point that you make, or the data or other information that you use, is substantially that of another writer and not your own.
As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph.
Look at the ways in which your sources use references in their own work, and for further guidance consult the companion guide Avoiding Plagiarism. Referencing styles There are many different referencing conventions in common use. Once you have understood the principles common to all referencing systems you should be able to apply the specific rules set by your own department.
Full details of the source are then given in a reference list or bibliography at the end of the text. Citing your source within the text As the name suggests, the citation in the text normally includes the name s surname only of the author s and the date of the publication.
This information is usually included in brackets at the most appropriate point in the text. The seminars that are often a part of humanities courses can provide opportunities for students to develop the communication and interpersonal skills that are valued by employers Lyon, The text reference above indicates to the reader that the point being made draws on a work by Lyon, published in An alternative format is shown in the example below.
Knapper and Cropley Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text in this instance a book and so a page number has been added. This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made.
When a publication has several authors, it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al. Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work.
If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus: The continuum of influences on learning from Knapper and Cropley, Even if you have reorganised a table of data, or redrawn a figure, you should still acknowledge its source: Type of work entered by humanities graduates data from Lyon, You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture.
Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks Barker, If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below.
The experience of the Student Learning Centre at Leicester is that many students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance Maria Lorenzini, pers. The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles.
Book references The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above.
Lifelong Learning and Higher Education.
The reference above includes: The title of the book should be formatted to distinguish it from the other details; in the example above it is italicised, but it could be in bold, underlined or in inverted commas.
When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is important to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was et al.
Papers or articles within an edited book A reference to a paper or article within an edited book should in addition include: Humanities graduates in the labour market. The Falmer Press, pp. Journal articles Journal articles must also include:Referencing films in essays are articles.
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Referencing Instructions for Essays 8a.
When to cite sources. Decisions about when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in theory, be able to retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument.
Example History Essay. This example history essay has been written to a standard by one of our skilled researchers.
Database of FREE History essays - We have thousands of free essays across a wide range of subject areas. Sample History essays! Referencing films in essays are movie.
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