The Kuomintang government supported nationalism while the Communist party supported communism. The Kuomintang government and its supporters left the mainland to go to Taiwan, and they ended up eventually loosing the war.
Contextualization[ edit ] Comparative media system research[ edit ] The field of comparative media system research has a long tradition reaching back to the study Four Theories of the Press by Siebert, Peterson and Schramm from This book was the origin of the academic debate on comparing and classifying media systems,  whereas it was normatively biased  and strongly influenced by the ideologies of the Cold War era.
Comparative media system research has been subject to several changes since its establishment. Another trend is that researchers factor in political systems more intensively to explain and compare media systems.
A more fundamental development is the shift from normative to empirically based approaches. There are still problems of comparative media studies in various countries which must be faced. The validity of the country sampling procedure is one problem, beside the adequate definition of the scope of the comparison to meet the specific national features of the cases, and the definition of adequate indicators as the basis for the comparison.
The comparative design is a bridge between traditional and nation-centered studies of media systems and new media as well as globalization perspectives.
According to this heuristic, the approach from Hallin and Mancini can be identified and localized as one specific combination of the components along these three dimensions of analysis. Their perspective of analysis is focused on a systematic comparison of media systems within Western democracies.
Consequently, their level of analysis concentrates on media systems within the context of nation states. Their main objectives are media-politics relations primarily on the level of structures, but in addition to it, they consider all objects of analysis to gain an encompassing understanding of these relations.
Objectives[ edit ] Developing a unifying conceptual framework for comparing media systems was essential for Hallin and Mancini. They focused on theory building rather than testing theories, as the then prevailing Four Theories of the Press and its subsequent normative modifications showed deficiencies in adequately analyzing present media systems.
Following this design, they conceptualized dimensions containing particular variables to analyze similarities and differences between the 18 countries under study. Since the dimensions and the resulting models cover specifically the media-politics relations of the Western world, Hallin and Mancini do not claim universal validity of their framework.
Hence, it must be reconceptualized to meet the specific conditions of media-politics relations beyond the Western world.
According to specific constellations of the variables within these dimensions, Hallin and Mancini conceptualized the three models of media and politics. The authors highlight several variables which can be used to describe the characteristics of press systems: They have to be assessed empirically for every new case under study.
They took relevant concepts from the literatures on comparative politics and political sociology to gain a better understanding of the political influences on the development of media systems. The resulting dimensions are presented as dichotomiesbut they are just poles on a continuum.
The first dimension is the role of the state. The main difference between these two categories is the interventional activity of the state e.
This difference takes shape in the relative importance of private business or social institutions within the political system in question. A further important dichotomic dimension is labeled consensus vs.
Furthermore, the Cabinet predominantly influences political decision processes. By contrast, the consensus politics model encompasses a multi-party system which is based on the power sharing principle according to the proportional representation so that compromise and cooperation between the opposing forces are central.
Additionally, there is a separation of power between legislative and executive.Many analysts, both in China and abroad, have questioned the long-term viability of China’s current political system, in which the Party remains above the law, leadership politics is a black box, and civil society and the right to free speech and association are severely constrained.
International Workshop on Smart Info-Media Systems in Asia September , Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, China The editorial committee of Special Section on Smart Multimedia & Communication Systems (the IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences) is pleased .
As visualised in Fig. 1, the media system in China is a relatively closed system. There are at least six existing forces inﬂuencing Chinese media synchronously Fig.
1 Media in China (remade by author with data from Tsinghua University). China’s social-credit systems have been compared to the “Nosedive” episode of the dystopian TV show Black Mirror, where ratings assigned by other consumers control every aspect of social and financial interaction.
Consumers sent more than $ trillion inside the two systems in , equivalent to about half of all consumer goods sold in China, according to the payments consultancy Aite Group. Welcome to our People's Republic of China Legal Research Guide. This guide gathers some of the best sources for background on Chinese legal research as well as the best Chinese legal research materials available through the Harvard Law School Library.