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This is the page on which technical details of Sharp's voice to skull conversion of voice to pulses is explained. The method is simple and the excerpt is short. Barker made the following relevant comments on the American Psychologist article.
Justesen reported in "Microwaves and Behavior," American Psychologist, Marchthat Sharp and Grove had successfully encoded speech the spoken digits from one to ten in a pulsed microwave signal.
The method reported in that article is essentially an FM modulation, rather than an AM modulation.
That paper states that "the electrical sine-wave analogs of each word were then processed so that Commentary thesis paper time a sine wave crossed zero reference in the negative direction, a brief pulse of microwave energy was triggered.
The results reported in the O'Loughlin patent for AM modulation do not necessarily apply to the FM modulation methods. For those who would like a more technical explanation of Commentary thesis paper O'Loughlin patent, Allen Barker further wrote: The scientific principle underlying the invention, and assumed by the inventors, is that thermal expansion can convert microwave pulses to acoustic signals.
As everyone knows from basic science, when things heat up they tend to expand, and when they cool down they tend to contract. Microwave pulses carry energy, and when a pulse is absorbed by biological tissue this energy is converted to heat.
This causes the tissue to expand very slightly, and then to contract back when it cools. This is basically the standard model for describing and analyzing the microwave hearing effect and has been for several decades.
A single microwave pulse causes a click to be heard. More complex signals can be broken down into strings of "clicks" by various modulation methods. The amplitude of the induced acoustic wave is at least roughly proportional to the power level of the microwave pulse.
The basic modulation method used in the O'Loughlin patent is an amplitude modulation. In a simple amplitude modulation, the signal is broken up into discrete samples in time and then the power level of the microwave pulse train is modulated accordingly. This is "an AM modulated envelope over a pulsed RF carrier train.
It works for tones, but not for complex signals such as speech. This is theoretically worked out in the draft patent, which also describes experimental verification that the simple AM modulation produces barely intelligible speech.
The experiments were conducted at "the Air Force Phillips Laboratory during the week of 24 Oct 94, using the AM sampled data modulation process. The patent actually makes use of a different form of AM modulation, the "AM double sideband suppressed carrier" method, which is linear in the amplitude and allows for preprocessing of the audio signal.
They state and show that "conventional AM modulation According to O'Loughlin, "This is the basic essence of the invention. Other preprocessing is also applied, for example to decrease the higher frequencies according to a spherical model of a human head which shows "a 40dB per decade slope in favor of the higher frequencies".
In a calculation in the draft patent, the sound level is calculated for a single tone sent via the AM balanced modulator method. The suppressed-carrier method only outputs power while a signal is present, so power levels would be much less of a problem unless someone were really being blasted by a constant auditory stream.
They may be crazy, but the Pentagon has pursued a weapon that can do just that. He is standing just where he said he would be, below the Philadelphia train station's World War II memorial -- a soaring statue of a winged angel embracing a fallen combatant, as if lifting him to heaven.
Girard is wearing pressed khaki pants, expensive-looking leather loafers and a crisp blue button-down. He looks like a local businessman dressed for a casual Friday -- a local businessman with a wickedly dark sense of humor, which had become apparent when he said to look for him beneath "the angel sodomizing a dead soldier.
He is also carrying a bag. Girard's description of himself is matter-of-fact, until he explains what's in the bag: He carries that black, weathered bag everywhere he goes.
The bag aside, Girard appears intelligent and coherent. At a table in front of Dunkin' Donuts inside the train station, Girard opens the bag and pulls out a thick stack of documents, carefully labeled and sorted with yellow sticky notes bearing neat block print.
The documents are an authentic-looking mix of news stories, articles culled from military journals and even some declassified national security documents that do seem to show that the U.Best commentary structure for IB English Paper 1 November 23, May 23, by Jackson Huang / 6 Having a strong commentary structure is the easiest way to earn marks in your IB English Paper 1.
In order to write a proper IB Paper 1 style essay, the following guidelines must be followed. For the IB commentary, you are expected to explain a given poem or prose.
While it is not to be confused with a detailed explanation as you might expect in college which would be anywhere from pages in. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
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