The affair lasted five years, and she gave birth to his son Henry Fitzroy. The Mistress of Kings by Alison Weir. Biography of the sole survivor of a family torn apart by lust and ambition. His mistresses helped influence profound changes in society and religion.
When Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond, seized the throne on August 22,leaving the Yorkist Richard III dead upon the field of battle, few Englishmen would have predicted that years of Tudor rule had begun. His mother was the great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, whose children by Catherine Swynford were born before he married her.
As his mother was only 14 when he was born and soon married again, Henry was brought up by his uncle Jasper Tudor, earl of Pembroke. When the Lancastrian cause crashed to disaster at the Battle of Tewkesbury MayJasper took the boy out of the country and sought refuge in the duchy of Brittany.
The house of York then appeared so firmly established that Henry seemed likely to remain in exile for the rest of his life. His first chance came in when his aid was sought to rally Lancastrians in support of the rebellion of Henry Stafford, duke of Buckingham, but that revolt was defeated before Henry could land in England.
Claiming the throne by just title of inheritance and by the judgment of God in battle, he was crowned on October 30 and secured parliamentary recognition of his title early in November.
Having established his claim to be king in his own right, he married Elizabeth of York on January 18, Many influential Yorkists had been dispossessed and disappointed by the change of regime, and there had been so many reversals of fortune within living memory that the decision of Bosworth did not appear necessarily final.
Hence, the king was plagued with conspiracies until nearly the end of his reign. Henry, recognizing that Simnel had been a mere dupe, employed him in the royal kitchens.
Then in appeared a still more serious menace: It was not untilwhen he imprisoned Suffolk in the Tower of Londonthat Henry could at last feel safe. Foreign policy In the early years of his reign, in a vain attempt to prevent the incorporation of the duchy of Brittany into FranceHenry found himself drawn along with Spain and the Holy Roman emperor into a war against France.
But he realized that war was a hazardous activity for one whose crown was both impoverished and insecure, and in he made peace with France on terms that brought him recognition of his dynasty and a handsome pension. Thereafter, French preoccupation with adventures in Italy made peaceful relations possible, but the support that Maximilian and James IV gave to Warbeck led to sharp quarrels with the Netherlands and Scotland.
INTRODUCTION King Henry VIII was an important figure in helping to kick start the Reformation in England, even though it was not his intent. His break with the Papacy and his constantly changing ideas on how the new Church of England should be run gave the Protestants the foothold they needed to gain popularity in Europe. I was recently searching the Internet trying to find a list of Henry VIII’s palaces and houses but was unable to find a complete list online. I am though lucky enough to own Simon Thurley’s The Royal Palaces of Tudor England, which includes a wonderful map showing the distribution of royal. Henry VII (Welsh: Harri Tudur; 28 January – 21 April ) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August to his death on 21 April He was the first monarch of the House of Tudor.
The economic importance of England for the Netherlands enabled Henry to induce Maximilian and the Netherlands to abandon the pretender in and to conclude a treaty of peace and freer trade the Intercursus Magnus.
Spain had recently sprung into the first rank of European powers, so a marriage alliance with Spain enhanced the prestige of the Tudor dynasty, and the fact that in the Spanish monarchs allowed the marriage to take place is a tribute to the growing strength of the Tudor regime in the eyes of the European powers.
Indeed, in these last years of his reign, Henry had gained such confidence in his position that he indulged in some wild schemes of matrimonial diplomacy. But the caution of a lifetime kept him from involvement in war, and his foreign policy as a whole must not be judged by such late aberrations.
He had used his diplomacy not only to safeguard the dynasty but to enrich his country, using every opportunity to promote English trade by making commercial treaties.
He made his country so prosperous and powerful that he was able to betroth his daughter Mary to the archduke Charles afterward Emperor Charles Vthe greatest match of the age. Government and administration In home affairs, Henry achieved striking results largely by traditional methods.
Like Edward IV, Henry saw that the crown must be able to display both splendour and power when occasion required. This necessitated wealth, which would also free the king from embarrassing dependence on Parliament and creditors. Solvency could be sought by economy in expenditure, such as avoidance of war and promotion of efficiency in administration, and by increasing the revenue.
To increase his income from customs dues, Henry tried to encourage exports, protect home industries, help English shipping by the time-honoured method of a navigation act to ensure that English goods were carried in English ships, and find new markets by assisting John Cabot and his sons in their voyages of discovery.
More fruitful was the vigorous assertion of royal fiscal rights, such as legal fees, fines and amercements, and feudal dues.
This was largely achieved by continuing Yorkist methods in ordering most of the royal revenue to be paid into the chamber of the household, administered by able and energetic servants and supervised by the king himself, instead of into the Exchequer, hidebound by tradition.
In restoring order after the civil wars, Henry used more traditional methods than was once thought. Like the Yorkist kings, he made use of a large council, presided over by himself, in which lawyers, clerics, and lesser gentry were active members.
Sitting as the Court of Star Chamberthe council dealt with judicial matters, but less than was formerly thought. The king, moreover, could not destroy the institution of retainers, since he depended on them for much of his army, and society regarded them as natural adjuncts of rank.
These experiences, together with the uncertainties of his reign, taught him to be secretive and wary, to subordinate his passions and affections to calculation and policy, to be always patient and vigilant.
There is evidence that he was interested in scholarship, that he could be affable and gracious, and that he disliked bloodshed and severity, but all these emotions had to give way to the needs of survival.
The extant portraits and descriptions suggest a tired and anxious-looking man, with small blue eyes, bad teeth, and thin white hair.
His experiences and needs had also made him acquisitive, a trait that increased with age and success, and one that was opportune for both the crown and the realm.On the same day young Edward VI was brought to the Tower and proclaimed King. The heralds cried ‘The King is dead!
Long live the King!’ For a few days Henry VIII’s body, embalmed and encased in lead and surrounded by burning tapers, lay in state in the presence chamber at Whitehall, before being moved to the chapel. Henry VIII, (born June 28, , Greenwich, near London, England—died January 28, , London), king of England (–47) who presided over the beginnings .
Oct 05, · Henry VII: Henry VII, king of England (–), who succeeded in ending the Wars of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York and founded the Tudor dynasty.
His son was Henry VIII. Learn more about Henry VII’s life, reign, and accomplishments in this article. Henry VIII is a two-part British television serial produced principally by Granada Television for ITV from 12 to 19 October It chronicles the life of Henry VIII of England from the disintegration of his first marriage to an aging Spanish princess until his death following a stroke in , by which time he had married for the sixth attheheels.comn by: Peter Morgan.
Introduction. Henry VIII is a collaborative history play, written by William Shakespeare and John Fletcher, based on the life of King Henry VIII of England. An alternative title, All Is True, is recorded in contemporary documents.
Dec 31, · Here is a fun animation and original, well almost, song to help you to learn and remember the names and circumstances of the six wives of King Henry VIII of England.