Over the next 15 years, while Henry fought three wars with France, Catherine bore him three sons and three daughters, all but one of whom died in infancy.
Henry VIII is said, on authority which has not been traced farther back than Paolo Sarpi, to have been destined for the church; but the story is probably a mere surmise from his theological accomplishments, and from his earliest years high secular posts such as the viceroyalty of Ireland were conferred upon the child.
He was the first English monarch to be educated under the influence of the Renaissance, and his tutors included the poet Skelton ; he became an accomplished scholar, linguist, musician and athlete, and when by the death of his brother Arthur in and of his father on the 22nd of April Henry VIII succeeded to the throne, his accession was hailed with universal acclamation.
The young king himself at first took little interest in politics, and for two years affairs were managed by the pacific Richard Foxe and Warham. Then Cardinal Wolsey became supreme, while Henry was immersed in the pursuit of sport and other amusements.
He followed an English army across the Channel inand personally took part in the successful sieges of Therouanne and Tournay and the battle of Guinegate which led to the peace of Ferdinand, however, deserted the English alliance, and amid the consequent irritation against everything Spanish, there was talk of a divorce between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragonwhose issue had hitherto been attended with fatal misfortune.
But the renewed antagonism between England and France which followed the accession of Francis I led to a rapprochement with Ferdinand; the birth of the lady Mary held out hopes of the male issue which Henry so much desired; and the question of a divorce was postponed.
Ferdinand died in that year and the emperor Maximilian in At the conference of Calais in English influence reached its zenith; but the alliance with Charles destroyed the balance on which that influence depended.
Francis was overweighted, and his defeat at Pavia in made the emperor supreme. Meanwhile Henry VIII had been developing a serious interest in politics, and he could brook no superior in whatever sphere he wished to shine.
Nor did success abroad now blunt the edge of domestic discontent. His fate, however, was sealed by his failure to obtain a divorce for Henry VIII from the papal court. There was Mary, but no queen regnant had yet ruled in England; A description of king henry of england in europe Beaufort had been passed over in favour of her son inand there was a popular impression that women were excluded from the throne.
No candidate living could have secured the succession without a recurrence of civil war. Wolsey persuaded him that the necessary divorce could be obtained from Rome, as it had been in the case of Louis XII of France and Margaret of Scotland. But the prospect of French success in Italy which had encouraged the pope proved delusive, and in he had to submit to the yoke of Charles V.
Wolsey fell when Campeggio was recalled, and his fall involved the triumph of the anti-ecclesiastical party in England. Laymen who had resented their exclusion from power were now promoted to offices such as those of lord chancellor and lord privy seal which they had rarely held before; and parliament was encouraged to propound lay grievances against the church.
On the support of the laity Henry VIII relied to abolish papal jurisdiction and reduce clerical privilege and property in England; and by a close alliance with Francis I he insured himself against the enmity of Charles V.
But it was only gradually that the breach was completed with Rome. Henry had defended the papacy against Luther in and had received in return the title " defender of the faith.
His eyes were opened to the extent of his own power as the exponent of national antipathy to papal jurisdiction and ecclesiastical privilege; and his appetite for power grew.
But the recognition of the royal supremacy could only be enforced at the cost of the heads of Sir Thomas MoreBishop Fisher and a number of monks and others among whom the Carthusians signalized themselves by their devotion Anne Boleyn fared no better than the Catholic martyrs; she failed to produce a male heir to the throne, and her conduct afforded a jury of peers, over which her uncle, the Duke of Norfolkpresided, sufficient excuse for condemning her to death on a charge of adultery The dissolution of the monasteries had meanwhile evoked a popular protest in the north, and it was only by skilful and unscrupulous diplomacy that Henry VIII was enabled to suppress so easily the Pilgrimage of Grace.
Foreign intervention was avoided through the renewal of war between Francis and Charles; and the insurgents were hampered by having no rival candidate for the throne and no means of securing the execution of their programme.
He had authorized the English Bible and some approach towards Protestant doctrine in the Ten Articles. He also considered the possibility of a political and theological alliance with the Lutheran princes of Germany.
But in he definitely rejected their theological terms, while in they rejected his political proposals. The new queen Catherine Howard represented the triumph of the reactionary party under Gardiner and Norfolk ; but there was no idea of returning to the papal obedience, and even Catholic orthodoxy as represented by the Six Articles was only enforced by spasmodic outbursts of persecution and vain attempts to get rid of Cranmer.
Feudalism was not yet dead, and in the north and west there were medieval franchises in which the royal writ and common law hardly ran at all. Wales and its marches were brought into legal union with the rest of England by the statutes of Wales ; and after the Pilgrimage of Grace the Council of the North was set up to bring into subjection the extensive jurisdictions of the northern earls.
Neither they nor the lesser chiefs who flourished on the lack of common law and order could be reduced by ordinary methods, and the Councils of Wales and of the North were given summary powers derived from the Roman civil law similiar to those exercised by the Star Chamber at Westminster and the court of Castle Chamber at Dublin.
Sir Anthony St Leger continued his policy from ; Henry VIII, instead of being merely lord of Ireland dependent on the pope, was made by an Irish act of parliament king, and supreme head of the Irish church.
Conciliation was also tried with some success; plantation schemes were rejected in favour of an attempt to Anglicize the Irish; their chieftains were created earls and endowed with monastic lands; and so peaceful was Ireland in that the lord-deputy could send Irish kernes and gallowglasses to fight against the Scots.
At first he was willing to subordinate them to an attempt to win over Scotland to his anti-papal policy, and he made various efforts to bring about an interview with his nephew. In James madly sent a Scottish army to ruin at Solway Moss; his death a few weeks later left the Scottish throne to his infant daughter Mary Stuartand Henry set to work to secure her hand for his son Edward and the recognition of his own suzerainty.
A treaty was signed with the Scottish estates; but it was torn up a few months later under the influence of Beaton and the queen-dowager Mary of Guiseand Hertford was sent in to punish this breach of promise by sacking Edinburgh.Henry VIII, (born June 28, , Greenwich, near London, England—died January 28, , London), king of England (–47) who presided over the beginnings of the .
Henry VIII: Henry VIII, king of England It provoked a serious reaction in England, and Henry concluded that Wolsey’s usefulness might be coming to an end.
Full of experience—the oldest king in Europe—and increasingly competent in the routine of . Description. King Henry VIII of England has been credited with single-handedly ripping apart one of the most devout Catholic countries the world has ever known.
Henry VII (Welsh: Harri Tudur; 28 January – 21 April ) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August to his death on 21 April He was the first monarch of the House of attheheels.com: Lady Margaret Beaufort.
Description Of Elizabethan England, The said Thomas Becket was so proud that he wrote to King Henry the Second, as to his lord, to his king, and to his son, offering him his counsel, his reverence, and due correction, etc. There is no commonwealth at this day in Europe wherein there is not great store of poor people, and those.
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